Geography and climate of Croatia

Croatia (Republic of Croatia) borders with Slovenia, Hungary, a federation of Serbia and Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Italy (border on the Adriatic). The country has 56 542 km2 of the area (land) – that's about it, what is the total area of ​​the Polish Masovian and Podlasie Voivodeships.

The biggest tourist attraction – Adriatic coast – ma 5835 km long, of which 4058 km fall on the coastline of the islands. The latter is 1185 (67 inhabited; the largest are Krk and Cres). The waters of the Adriatic Sea (Adriatic) they are clean, strongly salty and warm (in summer, the average temperature in the open sea is 22-25 ° C). Average depth is 252 m, and the surface -138 590 km2. The beaches along the Adriatic coast are mostly pebble, rocky and rocky, although there are also sandy ones (e.g.. the famous Zlatni rat beach on the island of Brac).

The salinity of the Adriatic Sea, amounting to an average of 38.30% o (The Baltic Sea on average 7.8% o) makes it possible to obtain sea salt by water evaporation in Soliny. They are shallow pools, into which water flows through channels, then closed. In sunny and warm weather, the water evaporates, leaving a layer of salt at the bottom of the channels. Such solines work for Ston and Pag in Croatia, and also near Ulcinj and Tiwatu in Montenegro. In Stońska Bay, salt has been harvested since the 13th century. – the brewhouse there was one of the pillars of the economy of Dubrovnik. W XVII w. produced over 6 thousand. tons of salt per year (currently approx. 3 thousand. your).

The Dinaric Mountains stretch along the coast, which include, among others. bandwidth: Mountain Kotar, Band, Dinara with the highest peak in Croatia – Dinar (1831 m n.p.m.) i Velebit – the largest mountain range in Croatia. W 1981 r. UNESCO recognized Velebit as a world biosphere reserve. The Dinaric Mountains are a karst area, abundant in thousands of caves, outbursts (also submarine), Lakes, fields, underground rivers. The karst is poor in water, and the rivers flowing in the mountains are short, with a large decline and rapid current. The most famous are Cetina and Krka, which create beautiful waterfalls.

The vast majority of the islands off the coast of Croatia are sunken pieces of land. Brusnik is an exception (on the west. from the island of Vis) and Apple (ok. 70 km to the north-west. from the island of Vis), which are of volcanic origin. Both are small and uninhabited – Extremely strong winds blow here, there is a shortage of drinking water, and in addition, it can be discouraged by the considerable distance from sea routes. Interestingly, compasses are not working near both islands – the reason is the large amounts of metal ores, Skat ingredients on both islands.

The character of eastern and north-eastern Croatia is completely different – they are partially flat, partly hilly areas included in the Srodkowodunajska Lowland. They are diversified by small mountain ranges, Papuk and Psunj. The main rivers of the country flow majestically through the lowlands, supplying the Danube - Sawa (562 km in Croatia) i Drawa (505 km within the country). The Danube flows through the area of ​​Croatia for a section 188 km.


The country is divided into two climatic zones: Mediterranean (coast) and continental (interior). The summers are sunny at the seaside, hot and dry. The average temperature in July is 24 ° C, however often (especially in high season) reaches 28-30 ° C, and sometimes even 40 ° C. In the last days of August or at the beginning of September, the weather often gets worse for a few days - it gets colder, there is rainfall. The winters on the Adriatic Sea are mild and rainy - the temperature rarely drops below 5 ° C, but the cold and dry bora wind blowing from the land can be felt. The annual rainfall on the coast is 1200-1500 mm (especially in the cold season). The exception is Dalmatia with rainfall below 1000 mm per year.

In eastern Croatia, the maximum July temperatures are slightly lower: 26-28°C. In January, maximum temperatures are 2-3 ° C, and a minimum of -2 do -4°C. It rains mainly in summer and autumn (annual rainfall is 700-900 mm, but in the mountains it sometimes exceeds 3000 mm). W wyższych pasmach górskich pogoda gwałtownie się zmienia, temperature differences are large (in winter up to 20 ° C below zero) and it often snows.

The weather in the Adriatic is influenced by the winds typical of the region.

Bora (bura) it breaks up suddenly, blowing from the land to the sea (from the Northeast). Is said to be, that it “glides down the slopes”, because it is caused by temperature differences: cool air collects behind the mountains, while at the seaside it is lighter, warm layer. After crossing the border of the mountains, the cold air rapidly descends towards the coasts, "Stuffing” a lighter warm layer towards the top. In summer, bora usually stops after a few hours, in winter, it can blow for up to two weeks. Bora blows with gusts, which can be dangerous to sailors. Is said to be, that it "cleans the air” – when it stops, the weather is beautiful, great visibility, and the sea takes on a deep color.

Sirocco (Juice, wide) it blows from the sea towards the land, generally from the south or southeast. It usually blows in the cold season, especially in the southern Adriatic. In winter, it can blow up to three weeks, in summer, usually no more than three days. It brings rain and thunderstorms.

Mistral (smorac) it's a nice summer breeze, bringing refreshment in hot weather. It blows from the sea towards the land – it starts around noon, because of the difference in the rate of warming of land and sea, and it stops in the early evening, usually replaced by a gentle offshore wind.

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