Croatia under the rule of the Habsburgs, World War I and II

Croatia under the rule of the Habsburgs. Croatia under the rule of the Habsburgs was subjected to the centralist politics of the Viennese court. Croatian magnates and nobility tried to put pressure on Vienna to regain lands lost to the Turks. The ban Nikola Zrinski strove for it. He then headed the unsuccessful plot of the Croatian lords against the Habsburgs. Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan also took part in the plot, who were sentenced to death and executed in Vienna after the fall of the uprising. Then there was a period of severe repression on the part of Austria, and the Croatian population was subjected to strong Magyarization.

The victory of Jan III Sobieski at Vienna in 1683 r. began a period of regaining Hungarian and Croatian lands under the control of the Turks. Thanks to Maria Teresa, Slavonia was joined to Croatia, Cities also returned: Rijeka, Copper and Kraljevica. During the reign of Maria Theresa, Croatia was subordinated to the Hungarian administration. When the heir to the empress, Joseph II, he wanted to Germanize Hungary and Croatia, He encountered resistance from the feudal lords from both countries.

The era of the struggle for language and identity began for the Croats. National Renaissance Movement (patch 30. i 40. XIX w.), called Ilirism, whose leader was Ljudevit Gaj, he awakened the consciousness of all southern Slavs. National tendencies started with Napoleon's creation in the years 1809-1814 The Illyrian provinces, including, among others. Dalmatia, Istria with Trieste and Rijeka, Croatian Przymorze, part of Croatia from Sava to Una and part of the Military Borderland. As part of Great Illyria, they wanted to unite the southern Slavs and create one nation, who would use the common Illyrian language.

W 1848 r., during the Spring of Nations, at the National Assembly in Zagreb, the establishment of the Triune Kingdom of Dalmatia was announced as part of the Habsburg monarchy, Croatia and Slavonia, and Josip Jelaćić became the new ban. Croatians, trying to become independent, they severed all ties with Hungary. Jelacic, by taking the side of the Habsurges, suppressed in 1848 r. Hungarian uprising directed against Austria. At first, Croatia was separated from Hungary, however, the next period of Germanization eliminated the freedoms gained. W 1868 r. Hungary and Croatia signed a settlement again, which granted Croatia extensive internal autonomy.

At the beginning of the 20th century. a Croatian-Serbian coalition was formed. It was to strive to unite Croatian lands and achieve financial independence and democratic freedoms. This coalition was the strongest grouping in the parliament until 1918 r. Alliance of Croats and Serbs, though attacked by Austria and Hungary, grew in strength. During World War I, he expressed the idea of ​​creating the Croatian state community, Serbs and Slovenes became founded in 1914 r. Yugoslav Committee (A. Trumbic, F. Supilo, I. Mestrovic), who started operations in Rome, and continued in London. 20 of August 1917 r. on the island of Corfu, the Yugoslav Committee and the Serbian government adopted a joint declaration on the creation of the state of the Slovenes, Croats and Serbs - a constitutional monarchy under the Serbian Karadziordziewic dynasty (Karadordević).

Common history of the South Slavic nations. 6 October 1918 r. the National Council was established in Zagreb (People's Council), whose task was to connect the southern Slavs in the Austro-Hungarian area. The collapse of the monarchy accelerated the creation of the independent Kingdom of the Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (SHS), headed by Alexander I Karadziordziewić. It happened 1 of December 1918 r.

However, it soon turned out, that the idea of ​​a common state and one nation is a pipe dream. In the Kingdom of SHS, a policy of centralism and large-Serbian nationalism was pursued. Croatian groups opposed this, e.g.. The Croatian Law Party and the Peasants' Party founded by Stjepan Radić. Stjepan Radić was fatally wounded in 1928 r. during the debates of the Belgrade Parliament.

The dictatorial rule of King Alexander was the answer to Croatian insubordination. W 1929 r. the name of the state was changed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Meanwhile, the Main Board of the Croatian Law Party mandated Ante Pavelić to take all steps to create an independent state. This is how the Ustaše terrorist organization was born, which proclaimed the idea of ​​the independence of Croatia at all costs. W 1934 r. in Marseille, on the orders of Ustasha, King Alexander was murdered. His successor, Pavel Karadziorjevic, tried to meet the demands of Croatian parties. 26 of August 1939 r. Serbo-Croatian agreement was reached (Agreement). At that time, an autonomous Croatian Banovina was created, which gathered lands inhabited by Croats.

World War II broke out five days after signing the agreement. 5 September 1939 r. the Belgrade government has declared neutrality. Yugoslavia initially refused to accede to the Pact of Three (Germany, Italy and Japan), but after much pressure and for fear of war, 25 brand 1941 r. relented. Meanwhile, in Belgrade with 26 on 27 March there was a coup. The power was taken over by Petar Karadziordziewić, son of king Alexander. Upon hearing of this, Hitler began preparations for a war with Yugoslavia. WITH 5 on 6 On April, a pact on friendship and non-aggression was signed in Moscow between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. 6 On April, Germany began bombing Belgrade without declaring war.

At the same time, Hitler agreed to sanction Croatia's independence. At the head of the Croatian Independent State (Independent State of Croatia, NDH) stopped, so far operating in exile in Italy, Ante Pavelić. There have been cruel times: the Jewish population was exterminated, Serbian and Gypsy, Communists and anti-fascists were persecuted. When in Croatia the Ustashe was guided by racist ideology, in Serbia, ethnic cleansing was carried out by Chetniks.

Meanwhile, after the capitulation of Yugoslavia, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), headed by Josip Broz-Tito, began to organize armed resistance against the occupiers. A national liberation uprising broke out, covering the entire territory of Yugoslavia. The Walkami was effectively led by Tito, and his communist guerrillas turned into a strong army.

Already in 1943 r. the provisional government of the new state was formed, the so-called. National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia. 29 November 1945 r. the creation of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was announced, which included six republics, Croatia is also among them. Marshal Tito became the head of the government, and the state was taken over by communists associated in the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Although Tito broke up with Stalin (w 1948 r.), but he introduced his own dictatorship, and a powerful machine helped him to exercise his power – Yugoslav secret police UDBA (State Security Directorate). Terror was the answer to all manifestations of rebellion against the new system. The famous Goli Otok near the island of Rab became a place of exile, where these were "rehabilitated", who did not understand Tito's coup.

As long as the Grand Marshal was alive, the unity of Yugoslavia was preserved. There was no democracy in a country that was a mosaic of several nations, dissatisfaction grew, separatist tendencies emerged, which were suppressed by force.

Not long after Tito's death, spring 1981 r. riots broke out in Priśtina, the capital of Kosovo. The League of the Communists of Yugoslavia ceased to exist.

W 1986 r. 16 members of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts prepared a memorandum, which condemned the constitution of 1974 r. (giving greater powers to the republics) and the government's policy as anti-Serb. In Serbia in the mid-1920s 80. Slobodan Milosevic became the head of the Serbian Communist League. Nationalist aspirations to create a Greater Serbia were revived, dating back to the mid-nineteenth century.

The Croatian Democratic Community responded (Croatian Democratic Union, HDZ), chaired by Franjo Tudjman, she began to speak out loud about independence. Serbs suppressed these independence aspirations, mutual hatred grew. Wounds, which Serbs and Croats (Chetniks and Ustashe) they asked themselves during World War II, they never scarred, only in Tito's day they were not allowed to be discussed. In the early years 90. Tito's Yugoslavia began to fall apart.

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