The name of the city probably comes from the canal, that once surrounded them. The documented history of Zagreb dates back to 1094 r., when a bishopric was established on the Kaptol hill. It is known, however, that settlement had developed earlier, as evidenced by the Stone Age discoveries in the nearby Veternica Cave. The settlement also existed here during the Roman times. When in the first half of the 13th century. Kaptol invaded and plundered the Tatars, it was decided to build a fortified hillfort. Gradec was built on the neighboring hill, which – thanks to numerous royal privileges and an influx of foreign craftsmen - he quickly achieved economic success and began to compete with the clerical Kaptol. It was not just an economic rivalry: with the passage of time, the centers became so reluctant, that there were regular fights, especially on the bridge connecting Kaptol and Gradec, which got the evocative name of Krvavi most (today an alley). In the second half of the 15th century. clerics decided to fortify Kaptol, fearing the imminent attack of the Turks. It paid off – The Turks conquered large swaths of the region, but Gradec and Kaptol remained intact. Both settlements soon, as it happens, decided to join forces for a more effective defense against a common enemy - this is how Zagreb was created, which became the capital of the country. However, the city was not lucky: Turkish expansion, epidemics and fires caused, that in the second half of the 18th century. the capital was temporarily moved to Varazdin (returned to Zagreb in 1776 r., when Varazdin burned down).
In the 19th century, Zagreb fell within the boundaries of the Habsburg Monarchy, which resulted in the civilization development of the city: w 1862 r. was connected by rail with Vienna, w 1870 r. z Budapest, a w 1873 r. with Rijeka. Large-scale urban planning projects were also implemented, what you can see today, walking through the vast parks and visiting the magnificent museums.
City tours are organized by some travel agencies, e.g.. Event (the. Andrijevićeva 12, tel.01/3703092, www.event.hr,email@example.com; sightseeing: on foot 95 kn / person, on foot and by bus 150 kn / person, children to 7 years free, 7-12 years 50% discounts; usually several people have to get together, cheaper groups). Self-guided tour, however, should not be too much trouble.
Ban Josip Jelacic Square
The large rectangular square is the heart of the city. It was established in the 17th century., when Zagreb began to expand south. Originally a market was held here, and the square was called Harmica (on the fee charged to merchants). The houses surrounding it with ornate facades come from the 19th and 20th centuries.; eldest (no 15) was built in 1827 r. On building no 4 there are reliefs by Meśtrović.
On the square, the equestrian statue of ban Jelaćić draws attention (1801-1859), the viceroy, who devoted his life to fighting for Croatia's independence. The monument was built in 1866 r., and the author of the project was the Austrian Anton Femkom. W 1947 r. the monument was removed from the square on Tito's orders, who saw it as a manifestation of Croatian nationalism. When in 1991 r. Croatia declared independence, the ban stood in the square again.
Another curiosity is the Manduśevac fountain with its origins in the 17th century.
The oldest part of the city stretches directly over the Trg bana Jelaćića. There are several ways to get here, but best by Dolać, main marketplace. The market square was laid out in 1926 r., after demolishing a complex of old buildings. The oldest church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the city stands here (church of st. Mary), presenting a mixture of gothic and baroque styles, decorated with beautiful frescoes from 1742 r.
Cathedral Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Cathedral of the Assumption of St.. Mary; sightseeing: groups Mon-Sat. 10.00-17.00, nd. 13.00- 17.00, individually without restrictions, with ex. Holy Mass; Masses Mon-Sat. 7.00, 8.00, 9.00, 19.00, nd. 7.00, 8.00, 9.00, 10.00, 11.30, 19.00), also known as the cathedral of St., Stefan, it is visible from a distance thanks to two soaring ones, newly renovated towers. It was built in the second half of the 13th century. on the ruins of the previous temple, destroyed by the Tatars in 1242 r. It owes its present-day neo-Gothic appearance to the reconstruction after the earthquake in 1880 r. The giant towers come from this period (104 i 105 m in height). The huge interior is kept in bright colors, a triptych by Albrecht Diirer in the side altar and the tomb of Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac stand out, the work of Ivan Meśtrovic. In the sacristy, 13th-century frescoes have been preserved. On the right-hand side of the rear wall there is an inscription in Glagolitic, and a plaque was placed at the entrance to commemorate the stay in the temple of John Paul II in 1994 r. In the square in front of the cathedral there is a column with a statue of the Virgin Mary and four gilded angels with 1873 r.
W XV w. Kaptol was surrounded by defensive walls, of which only fragments have survived (characteristic oval towers).
To the left of the church there is the Archbishop's Palace, in which an exhibition dedicated to Cardinal Stepinacov was organized (Kapitol 31, tel.01/4811781; pn — sb. 8.00-14.00). Behind the palace is Ribnjak Park, founded in the 19th century.