History of Croatia

Cave Man W. 1899 r. In the town of Krapina near Zagreb, the remains and tools of a proto-human were found – homo crapiniensis, derived from the Pleistocene. A Neolithic settlement has been unearthed on the island of Hvar, and the Bronze and Early Iron Age is represented by a settlement found in Istria near Pula.

Illyria The area of ​​present-day Croatia was inhabited by Illyrian tribes in antiquity and therefore the land was called Illyria. From one of the tribes – Dalmatians - the name Dalmatia comes from. About 400 r. p.n.e. the conquest of these areas was started by the Celts. At that time, the Dalmatian coast, especially islands and coastal towns, were covered by Greek colonization. From the first century. p.n.e. these areas were already ruled by the Romans; I i II w. is the rise of the Roman Empire in the Balkans. The Illyrian population was gradually romanized. W 437 r. Dalmatia was subordinated to the East Roman Empire. W IV and V w. the lands of today's Croatia were invaded by the Huns and the Goths, who ravaged almost the entire Balkan Peninsula.

Croats in the Balkans During the great migration of the Slavs in the 6th and 7th centuries, the Croats reached the Balkan Peninsula. They came back in the 7th century. from his homeland, the so-called. White or Great Croatia (According to legend, these were lands north of the Carpathians, that is, Małopolska and Ukraine), by settling in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. At the beginning, like other Slavic tribes, they were subordinated to the powerful state of the Avars and fought with them against the Byzantine Empire. By the end of the 8th century. independent tribal ties with centers in Dalmatia were established in the territory of today's Croatia (Dalmatian Croatia) i Slawonii (Posawska or Pannonian Croatia). After the defeat of the Avars by Charlemagne, the Croats fell into dependence on the Frankish state.

The first historical rulers of the then regions of Croatia: Borna and Viseslav in Dalmatian Croatia (in the times of Viseslav, w 800 r., Croats adopted Christianity) and Ljudevit Posavski in Posavska Croatia, they tried to free themselves from the tutelage of the Franks. W 819 r. Ljudevit Posavski organized an uprising against them, which, however, was bloodily suppressed. In the first half of the 9th century. Croatia, already ruled by the first rulers of the Trpimirowice dynasty, surrendered to the suzerainty of Byzantium.

Croats national independence. Croatian state, independent and independent, was established during the reign of Trpimirowice. The first independent ruler was Prince Brani-mir, which in 879 r. he severed ties with Byzantium. He was followed by Mutimir, and then Tomislav (910-928), to whom Pope John X granted v 925 r. the title of king. King Tomislav united Croatian lands and successfully defended them against Hungarians and Bulgarians. During his reign, Croatia experienced times of greatness and power. The subsequent rulers of the dynasty tried to maintain the independence and cohesion of their lands, but for influences, e.g.. such powers were contending in Dalmatian Croatia, like Byzantium and Venice. Croatia's official adoption of Christianity automatically tightened its ties with the papacy. Pope Gregory VII century 1074 r. he crowned Croatia's ban on Zvonimir as king. In fact, it meant submission to the papal authority. With the end of the Trpimirowic dynasty (after the murder of Zvonimir) the short period for Croatia has ended (879-1090) state independence.

Personal union with Hungary. Signed by Croats in 1102 r. the personal union with Hungary lasted until 1918 r. At first, the Hungarian king Koloman was enthroned on the Croatian throne. With time, he managed to impose sovereignty on Dalmatian cities as well, which then belonged to Byzantium again. Initially, the state was kept separate within the Kingdom of Hungary – m.in. the coronations of the kings of Croatia were held separately, who ruled in accordance with Croatian law established by the so-called. Taste (state institution). The country still had an army, however, his rights were gradually curtailed. A separate coronation was abandoned under the Arpada rule, and the Ban of Croatia became the governor of the King of Hungary (deputy king and chief judge of the kingdom). Feudalism appeared with the new power.

W XIV w. Turks began their conquests in Europe. In the 16th century, they took over part of Croatian territory. When in 1526 r. the Habsburgs took the throne of Hungary and Croatia, they ruled only the vicinity of Zagreb, as the rest of the lands on the eastern side of the Adriatic fell into the hands of the Turks. In turn, Dalmatian Croatia from the 15th to the 18th centuries. was under the rule of Venice.

Military Borderland. Croatian Military Frontier (War landscape) was established in the 16th century. on the lands, which the Habsburgs recovered from the Turks. It was a strip of land near the Croatian-Turkish border. Over time, the Military Borderland was divided into three areas: north-west covering Slavonia (m.in. Varażdin, Krizevci), located south of Zagreb (m.in. Helmet, Slunj) and a strip of coastal lands (m.in. Rijeka, The islet). The borderland has been populated by faults, also called border guards or cutters; most often they were Orthodox Serbs who fled the lands conquered by the Turks. In Uskoków, military service and work for the state and the army were required. In order to protect the borders, fortresses and fortified settlements were built in the border area. The end of the Military Borderland came in 1881 r., when it was fully incorporated into Croatia.

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